In the east and south-east coast of the country bordering the Yellow, Philippine, East China and South China seas (the length of the coastline - 18 thousand km.), The country has more than 3.4 thousand. Islands.
The country's terrain is very diverse - from framed highest mountain systems of Asia Tibetan Plateau (average height of about 4500 m) in the south-west and high plains and mountains of the eastern Tien Shan in the north-west to the Loess Plateau and the lowlands of the Great Plain of China to the east. In the north-east stretch low chain Manchurian-Korean mountains and Hingana, and in the south - Nanling Mountains and the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. Stony desert Taklamakan and Gobi occupy vast areas in the north and west of the country, and cultivated subtropical forests - the south-east China.
There are three climatic zones: temperate continental (west and north), with hot summers and cold winters, subtropical in the central regions of the country and the tropical monsoon in the south coast and the islands. A characteristic feature is the very high humidity in the summer in many central and southern regions.
The average temperature in northern winter about -7 ° C (not uncommon and -20 ° C) in the summer are around 22 ° C and dry enough. In the central part of China in winter from 0 ° C to -5 ° C in the summer - about 20 ° C. In southern winter from 6 ° C to + 15 ° C, in summer - more than + 25 ° C.
Annual rainfall varies from 2000-2500 mm. on the south and east, up to 50-100 mm. in the northern and western regions. Winter and autumn part of the powerful typhoons in the south and withering winds in the northern and western parts of the country.
The best time to travel in China - late spring, especially in May, or autumn from September to October, and in the south in November - December.
Communist republic. Head of State - President of China. The highest organ of state power - the National People's Congress with a permanent representative body - the Standing Committee.
Official Language: Chinese
In tourist centers, English is used in the north of the country often - Russian.
Officially, the entire population is considered to be atheists, but many practice Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Lamaism, Protestantism, Catholicism, and others.
International name: CNY
1 yuan equals 10 jiao (or Mao), in turn, is 100 fyn (fen). In circulation there are denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 50 and 100 yuan, 1, 2 and 5 jiao, and 1, 2 and 5 fen.
Currency can be exchanged at the principal offices of the Bank of China, as well as in their offices in some hotels, international airports (the most favorable rate), railway stations and in some large shopping centers. This should keep your receipts received in the exchange as well as the return of the remaining RMB exchange is only possible if their badges. For exchange must submit a customs declaration or a statement from the bank, as well as proof of identity.
Credit cards are accepted in hotels and restaurants, world-class department stores and large public and cashed only in the branches of Bank of China (the fee is usually 4%). When you purchase on your credit card will be charged a special fee (1-2% of the purchase price) and on such a purchase is not subject to the system of discounts. Travel checks can be exchanged at banks somewhat more favorable rate than cash, but working with checks exchange points is not everywhere.
How to get to China
"Uzbekistan Airways" performs reysyTashkent - Beijing (6 hours on the way) twice a week.
China Southern Airlines operates regular flights once a week.
China can move on and coaches, but then the chances of a comfortable journey - 50 of 50: available as a pleasant ride in the new car with air conditioning and TV, as well as an endless shaking on the broken "nag" in the company of Chinese peasants.
Public transport in cities is overloaded to the limit. In Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Hong Kong, Shenzhen and Tianjin have a subway, buses and trolley buses (working from 5: 00-5: 30 to 22: 00-23: 00). Tickets are sold in the subway at the box office at the entrance ("travel" and magnetic cards are absent), the bus and trolley bus - from the conductor, and on suburban lines - from the driver.
Also there is a shuttle bus serving the tourist areas and railway stations. Fare them varies depending on the distance and is generally from 1 to 3 CNY.
Taxis - the most comfortable way to travel in the city (6-10 CNY for the first 4 km and 1-2 CNY in each).
Move short distances can be conventional bicycles and rickshaws fares depends on the weight of the passengers and the distance (usually rickshaw is more expensive than a taxi).
Rent a car
As an international driving license valid in China, rent a car can only be "bundled" with the driver. The approximate cost of the rental car with a driver-guide for a trip on a tour - 150 USD.
Where to stay
In China, you can stay in a luxury hotel as one of the international networks as well as in a traditional inn. In this country has adopted its own special classification, classic graduation from two to five stars only applies to hotels worldwide networks. In hotels, as a rule, tourists are invited to services peculiar element of Chinese culture - in a thermos of hot tea in each room, which at the request of changing as it cools down. Locks and doors in Chinese hotels are more conditional, however, cases of theft are quite rare. Valuables should still be stored in the safe at the reception.
Some features are and at the level of service, as in Chinese hotels it is slightly lower than in European hotels. In addition, the price is different for local and tourists in favor of the country's inhabitants. In the season of Christmas holidays rooms should be booked in advance, but with a severe shortage of availability you can contact the Office of Tourism of China that can help you to find accommodation in apartments or homes of local residents across the country.
In addition to traditional hotel accommodation is also possible to rent a bungalow, cottage or apartment. Especially popular is the accommodation on the famous Chinese resort of Hainan. Major hotels are designed for foreigners and service to them is consistent with international standards.
Hostels or student dormitories are called in China coaching at home here for a small fee you will be offered a minimum service and overnight. Guest Houses - Accommodation is of a higher class, they can fit two three-star hotels. Another, more comfortable and expensive accommodation option is the so-called "wine" at home. The level of service they comply with the hotels 3-4 stars.
Tours and attractions in China
China - a huge economically developed country, the third largest in the world by land area and the first in terms of population. In recent decades, enormous pace in China began to develop the tourism sector. Full of mystery and contrasts the country will impress and surprise even the most experienced traveler. Here you will find the stunning beauty of the natural landscape, the abundance of attractions and, of course, the ancient cultural traditions of the "high places" with roots in the distant past. China - it's majestic mountains and endless plains, many lakes and the sea, scenic rivers, dense forests, as well as sacred Tibet, the Forbidden City, the Great Wall of China, the famous "Terracotta Army", numerous palaces, monasteries and temples, the Chinese tea ceremony and more more.
Hallmark of China, of course, is the Great Wall of China, a total length of about 9,000 km. This is the most famous landmark of the country and the most grandiose defensive structure in the world. Among the main attractions of China should also highlight the huge Imperial Palace (also known as the "Forbidden City") in the center of Beijing and the tomb of Emperor Qin Shi Huang, with its famous Terracotta Army near the city of Xi'an.
However, the Chinese capital Beijing is known for not only the Imperial Palace. Great interest are also the Temple of Heaven (Tiantan), summer residence of the imperial Summer Palace with a magnificent park, Tiananmen Square (one of the largest squares in the world), the Beijing Botanical Garden, Beihai Park and the Fragrant Hills, Temple of the Sun and the Yonghe Temple. No less interesting and the National Museum in Beijing, the Metropolitan Museum, the Geological Museum of China, as well as the ruined garden-palace complex Yuanming Yuan, the tombs of the emperors of the Ming Dynasty in the outskirts of the capital and much more.
Deserves special attention, and the Chinese city of Shanghai - an important cultural and financial center of the country. Especially popular among tourists is the picturesque Bund (along the Huangpu River), People's Square and, of course, the famous Nanjing Road - Shanghai's main shopping street with shopping malls, shops, as well as many excellent restaurants and cafes. The main thing, and perhaps the most interesting sights of Shanghai are Lanhua Pagoda, Yu Garden, Jade Buddha Temple, Confucius Temple, the Cathedral of St. Ignatius Loyola, the Shanghai Museum, Shanghai Oriental Art Center and the zoo.
Among the abundance of historical, cultural and architectural monuments of China is worth noting the sacred mountain and the Songshan Shaolin Temple, Longmen Caves and the White Horse Temple in Luoyang, Xiaoling Mausoleum in Nanjing, Buddha statue in Leshan, monasteries and churches of the Tianshan Mountains and the Wudang, Mukden Palace, Pagoda of Six harmonies in Hangzhou, Dazu Rock Carvings near the caves and cave Yungang Grottoes in Shanxi Province. Of particular interest is the architecture of Pingyao Ancient City and Dayan (modern Lijiang). In the historical capital of Tibet - Lhasa most interesting Norbulingka palace and park, the Potala Palace and the Jokhang Temple. Mass of attractions and a variety of cultural events and waiting for you in the city of Guangzhou.
Enjoy the beautiful natural landscapes and the stunning beauty of the scenery of China, you can visit the National Park Lushan, Santsin, Jiuzhaigou and Qing Liang Shan, Huanglong Nature Reserve and the famous South China Karst. Extraordinary natural beauty famous Huangshan mountain range ("Yellow Mountain") and Wuyi Mountain Range. Beach lovers should definitely visit the picturesque island of Hainan.
Kitchen of China
For Chinese food - not just satisfaction of hunger, but rather a ritual rite. Until now, China's elderly people are turning instead of greeting each other with the phrase: "No chafanla ma?" - "You have already eaten?". And as for the man who lost his job, saying: "He broke his bowl of rice" ....
All together they account for the uniqueness of Chinese cuisine, which attracts not quite the usual methods of preparation, lots of spices, beautifully decorated dishes and an unusual combination of ingredients. In any other country the art of cooking is not brought to such perfection as in China. This art has become part of the ancient culture and became the custom of the Chinese people.
In modern China, particularly popular pork. The meat is cut into small slices, strips or cubes and fry over high heat. In cooking also use poultry, particular success are chickens and ducks. They are prepared using various sauces, condiments, spices and starches.
Favorite dish of many Chinese - whole fried in vegetable oil duck, sometimes slightly smoked, but be sure to pre-soaked in a spicy soy sauce.
Widely used in the Chinese national cuisine found eggs (chicken and duck). They are used for the preparation of many hot and cold snacks, canned in a special way (smeared with a mixture of ash and lime, soda, salt and kept in tanks or earth 20-100 days). After this procedure, the protein becomes brown and green yolk.
Very popular fish dishes: Chinese perch, flounder, saber-fish and marine invertebrates, shrimp, crabs, various molluscs (squid, octopus, cuttlefish), oysters, etc.. Very popular as legumes and their products: soybean oil , soy milk, soy cheese (there are many recipes of dried, fresh and marinated tofu); acute dark brown liquid sauce, rather thin salty soybean paste. Legumes - the main source of protein in the diet of the Chinese replacing meat, the consumption of which is very limited.
The composition of the national dishes of Chinese cuisine includes flour products, including noodles, vermicelli, all kinds of cakes, steam bread (dumplings), Wonton, ears and sweet cookies. A huge role in the diet of vegetables play: very popular with all kinds of cabbage, sweet potatoes, potatoes, radish different varieties, green bunching onion, garlic, tomatoes, peppers, spinach, green bean pods. Especially popular are the thick sheets of young bamboo boiled, side dishes and canned goods.
Vegetables are often marinated in soy sauce, salt, fermented and dried. They are the main snack for porridge.
The most popular drink in China - green tea. It is brewed in a porcelain teapots, and sometimes directly in china cups and drinking very hot without sugar. Usually Chinese meal begins and ends with tea. When visitors come, they are always welcome cup of freshly brewed tea. Tea in China - this is not just a pastime and quenching thirst, but also an ancient and very important tradition.
Usually feed in China 3 times a day, but there are traditions: for example, strictly lunch at noon.
Tipping is officially banned, but still decided to leave them at an average of 5-10% of the cost of the service.
State stores operate seven days a week from 9.30 to 20.30, and private from 9 to 21 hours, and often even longer. Markets are usually open 7 hours (some - at 4 am) and work up to 10-12 hours.
Banks officially open from 9 am to 12 noon and from 14 to 17 hours, but many banks set their own, different from the common work schedule.
Chopsticks, beautiful porcelain cups, lacquer boxes, printing and cases for the scrolls can be bought at every turn. Hangzhou and Suzhou are famous for excellent tea and silk. This antiques for sale, as a rule, only in state stores and is expensive. With its purchase is required to obtain from the seller the authorization.
It is recommended to pre-vaccination against cholera, Japanese encephalitis, polio, typhoid, malaria and hepatitis A and B. There is also a risk of exposure to rabies, tuberculosis, diphtheria and bilharzia (shistozoma blood).
It is unsafe to self-visit certain areas near the border with Laos and Myanmar, as well as the region of Tibet, which is required to attend a special visa. Tibet actually visit with a group on a pre-agreed and the agreed route.
Before a trip to any vaccinations and immunizations are required. Necessarily need to use the safe storage of documents, money and valuables. If there is no in-room safe, documents and valuables can deposit an attendant.
A foreigner in China, always carry a card that says the hotel in Chinese or card with the data filled by any Chinese interpreter.
Drink unboiled water from the tap is strongly discouraged. In any hotel in the room will be either a thermos of hot water, or electric kettle. Also, in most of the hotels free mineral water without gas (essentially the Chinese do not consume carbonated "mineral water"). In Hong Kong, for smoking in public buildings (airports, shops, metro) will be charged ~ 5000 CNY.
The Chinese are very fond of big volume: they are a lot of shouting, a lot of honking, a lot of cussing. And love to sing. Sing everywhere and as soon as they want. Chinese can be seen singing in the town square, on the bus or on the streets. That is why karaoke in China is incredibly popular and is considered a favorite pastime. Frequent meetings with the Chinese singing on the street is very uplifting.
Police and emergency services - 110
Fire service - 119
Ambulance - 120
Traffic Police - 122
Photo and Video
Taking pictures and videos in churches and museums is prohibited. In some places, shooting is only allowed for an additional fee. Photograph government offices and strategic objects (even bridges and dams) is not recommended. Under the new Criminal Code, criminal offense is photographed without warning, as well as video recording in public places where there is no corresponding enable tablets.